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Mining yields different materials depending on the rocks you mine, with different rocks belonging to different biomes. However, because of spawn behavior, rocks (except for gem rocks) can sometimes be found outside their biomes.

Mining Chance Formula

Rough idea but needs finer testing: [6% + (Mining Level × 0.875%)] × Pickaxe Modifier.

Multipliers are estimated, but level caps for 100% mining chance are confirmed.

Pickaxes Lvl Multiplier Cap Notes
Stone Pickaxe 0 1.125 ?
Bone Pickaxe 5 1.250 88
Bronze Pickaxe 34 1.375 81
Iron Pickaxe 51 1.500 73
Steel Pickaxe 68 1.625 66

Mining Bonuses

Items Lvl Type Mining Notes
Peddler's Gem 12 Accessory +6 Also adds +6 chopping.
Merchant Cloak 15 Light Armor +3 Also adds +3 chopping.

You can also enchant items with a bonus to mining using citrine, quartz, and sapphires.

Rock Yields

Different rocks can be better (or even unique) sources for farming different materials, as detailed below.

Desert Rocks

Found in the sand biome; prime source for stone, minerals, and precious metals.

Desert

Stone2 Stone 75%
Flint Flint 10%
Hematite Hematite 7%
Mal Malachite 4%
Cass Cassiterite 3%
Silver Silver 0.7%
Gold Gold 0.3%

Plain Rocks

Found in the grass biome, a common starter rock that offers little besides stone and flint.

Grassrock

Stone2 Stone 90%
Flint Flint 10%
Gold Gold ~0.01%

Black Rocks

Found in the snow biome, these rocks are a significant source of obsidian.

Blackrock

Stone2 Stone 75%
Flint Flint 10%
Obsidian Obsidian 15%
Gold Gold ~0.01%

Gold Rocks

Mainly found in the Underground, these rocks are very rich in minerals and precious metals.

Gold rock

Flint Flint 40%
Hematite Hematite 28.25%
Mal Malachite 16%
Cass Cassiterite 3.75%
Silver Silver 8%
Gold Gold 4%

Crystal Rocks

Found in the Underworld and Snowtop Peaks. A highly sought-after source of gems for Smithing.

Gemrock

Stone2 Stone 55%
Gems Gems 20%
Flint Flint 10%
Hematite Hematite 7%
Mal Malachite 4%
Cass Cassiterite 3%
Silver Silver 0.7%
Gold Gold 0.3%